Special Efforts

NEPW for India

David A. Nuttle                                                                             Tel. 1-918-868-5710
19994 E.626 Road                                                                          10 April 2007
Tahlequah, OK 74464  USA

To : Commissioner of Patents & Trademarks
       Washington, DC 20231
Re :  Disclosure of NEPW – GE Invention & Demonstration, by David A. Nuttle
Ref: U.S. Patent Disclosure Document Nos. 543536 & 543537, and U.S. Patent No. 5,121,708;  David A. Nuttle, Inventor.

       Please find, following hereinafter, my Record of Disclosure of Invention. Be it known that I, David Allen Nuttle, a U.S. Citizen and resident of Cherokee Co., Oklahoma, USA, hereby declare that I have conceived the invention described and illustrated below on this 10th day of April 2007.  The invention shall be known by the name of Nutrient Enhancement Potable Water – Green Energy (NEPW-GE) System.
Subject invention utilizes parts of my referenced inventions, but creates a new and very unique, separate invention --- w/ a planned initial demonstration in India.

      Basis of Need:  According to data from the United Nations and World Bank, over
2 (two) billion people, worldwide, have nutrient deficient diets and a general lack of potable drinking water ---with the lack of both nutrients and potable water creating significant health and disease problems causing over 5,300 deaths daily. Many of these same people lack any form of affordable energy, and/or they use energy sources that often pollute the environment.

      Current Methods: The United Nations, U.S. Agency for Intl. Development (AID), Peace Corps, several international charities (such as CARE), and others, have been working to help provide subject populations improve diets, obtain potable water, and develop affordable green (environmentally friendly) energy options.  Yet, the current methods and efforts have only helped to meet less than 10 percent of subject needs. The current methods lack an effective self-help approach to assist those in need do more to help themselves.

      What This Invention Does:  Subject NEWP – GE System provides a safe, efficient, economical, and simple means for said impoverished populations to grow their very own nutrient supplements, while also producing potable water and green energy.  (David A. Nuttle’s “Authenticated Barter Trade System” ---U.S. Patent Disclosure Document No. 474849--- will be used to help the poor acquire NEPW – GE Systems.)
      Example Application of Invention:  Under the inventor’s direction, Needful Provision, Inc. (NPI), a U.S. NGO, will join with AWARE, an Indian NGO, to assist and instruct impoverished rural/ tribal villagers (in Anantapur District, India --the second poorest district for India), in a carbon sequestration means of algalculture efficiently and economically producing food, feed, fertilizer, and energy to greatly improve well-being while reducing levels of CO2 (the primary and most damaging greenhouse gas). Manure/ manure effluent may be used for other nutrients needed by freshwater microalgae
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producing the above said products. Water in the algalculture raceways will be recycled after algal harvests are completed.  Algal production facilities may also be designed to provide potable water in areas with polluted drinking water problems. This demonstration model is a US$4.3 million project, occurring over a 36-month period, expected to benefit 3.1 million Indians now living in extreme poverty.  USDOS will be asked to provide a US$2 million grant to support this effort. (Another foundation has already pledged US$2.3 million cash, and NPI is providing US$720,000. of in-kind or technology contributions ---not detailed in our budget.) The proposed Australian partner for subject demonstration project, AlgaFuels Pty. Ltd., may assist our Indian partner, AWARE, in the use of said technology for algal-biodiesel production to provide a clean alternative fuel/ energy source for project villagers.

      Benefits of the NEPW – GE System:  The algalculture portion, of this production
system, reduces CO2 levels and utilizes excess nutrients while producing algae for food, feed, fertilizer, and/or energy.  An attached quail habitat provides meat and eggs as well as manure/ manure effluent for extra nutrients needed by algae.  Some tilapia fish, algae eaters, may be grown in the algalculture raceway to produce fish for food.  A portion of the algae may also be harvested for food or feed supplements, or to make a polyphenolics concentrate to help improve immune response, and lower disease rates.  NEPW - GE units can be designed to also provide potable (distilled) water, to help families avoid drinking polluted water that causes diseases/ illnesses.  Rainwater is harvested and stored to facilitate operation of the NEPW – GE units, and water is recycled after each algal harvest.  As an option, an aquaponics, organic vegetable production system may be added with fish- water, fish manure, & some algae are used for “fertigation” (fertilization & irrigation). A supplemental algalculture unit may be added to produce algal lipids for use as algal-biodiesel fuel. (Remote villagers who need to produce and distribute their own electricity, may use biodiesel-powered generators ---so they can grow their own fuel.)  

      Basics of NEPW - GE Algalculture:  Shaped-earth forms a basic raceway, of the desired size --- and/or construct walls made of steel, concrete, or other materials.  In most cases, length will be 3 to 8 times longer than width and ends will be rounded.  (For a typical family, a 20 ft. x 60 ft. size is suggested ---and for a commercial unit, a 100  ft. x 400 ft. size is optimal.) A food-grade plastic liner is then placed in the bottom to prevent water loss, and help keep microalgae clean.  Water depth is 3 ft. at the upper end, to 4 ft. at the lower end, with a drain feature to facilitate frequent harvesting.  A floating divider curtain, with open ends, is located down the center to help maintain circulation and uniformity of flow.  An air pump provides air to a PVC-type pipe running the length of the raceway.  Air tubes run from this pipe to a series of air-stones located along the bottom sides of the raceway.  Each air-stone is located behind a wing-type device that protrudes at a 45-degree angle, some 18 inches into the raceway.  By using selected variation of the number of air-stones and/or wing devices, the rate of circulation and rate of aeration may be varied.  This fundamental design may be changed to achieve the optimal production means indicated by algae produced in Nuttle’s Cross Gradient Device (CGD) --U.S. Patent Disclosure No. 543537-- used in labs to optimize algal growth for

page  3 – Disclosure of NEPW – GE Invention, by David A. Nuttle
each algal species used.  (This current design, as stated, is based on research with a CGD.)  Special added features are:

  1. Adjustment of light levels --- accomplished using a floating canopy, over the

raceway, to support shade cloth material reducing the light to that level achieving the best results from CGD microalgae crops with the same species. (Limiting water depth controls uniformity of light levels.)

  1. Photomodulation --- the PVC-type raceway liner is made of strips of black and

white materials in the width desired, as adjusted to circulation flow rates, so the desired periods of light and shadow are achieved.  As a supplement, an overhead canopy will be supported by floating-balls, fixed in a pattern to help achieve photomodulation.

  1. Nutrient Availability --- carbon (40 percent of nutrients for most algal crops) is

provided by means of super-aeration to make CO2 available. The balance of nutrients will generally be provided by making livestock manure effluent tea --to be supplied at rates that will meet the balance of required nutrients.  (In most cases, sand-filtered livestock manure “teas” have proven safe for the production of feed products for animals.   As required by FDA, organic nutrients should be used for NEPW – GE food production.)

  1. Circulation & Agitation --- the above said floating divider curtain acts to sustain

uniformity of flow.  By adding or subtracting the number of wing devices and/or air- stones, the rate of flow may be determined.  When more agitation is desired, a large spiral shaped funnel device is placed in the raceway to create a spinning motion as the water and algae flows through.

  1. Temperature Control --- for cold climates, the floating canopy will facilitate

heating by solar and supplemental means (such as biomass heating).  The canopy is located over the raceway, and the above features added as necessary.  In a hot climate, some cooling may be required.  Cooling can be accomplished with ventilation, use of ground tubes to cool air ---and/or a solar chimney w/ fans to help move hot air out from under the floating canopy used for algalculture.  (The inventor’s solar-powered cooling system, under development, may also be used as needed to eliminate excess heat.)

  1. Invader Management --- the floating canopy generally acts to deter entry of

algal invaders, helminthes, and/or zooplankton.  Very aggressive species of desired algal crops, such as freshwater Scenedesmus, will usually prevent other algal species from taking over.  Paddlefish, filter feeders favoring helminthes and zooplankton, may be used to control these invaders.  (Manure from fish provides extra nutrients for algal crops.)

  1. Out-Gassing Requirements  --- due to the use of super-aeration to provide CO2

as a carbon source for a primary algal nutrient, excessive dissolved oxygen levels need to be avoided since they slow algal growth.  To prevent excessive levels of oxygen, the system canopy features a center-located solar chimney to speed out-gassing.  (Solar heat on a black chimney quickly heats air (inside the chimney) causing it to rise rapidly, and then pull in more air from the bottom chimney intake(s). 
(System features are determined by results of CGD research on each algal species.)

     Commercial NEPW – GE Systems:  Subject systems, herein described, are designed for use by individuals, families, and villagers to provide the various products indicated above.  Given the urgent need for alternative energy and food supplements, villagers in the demonstration area will join together in undertaking larger, commercial algalculture
page  4 – Disclosure of NEPW-GE Invention, by David A. Nuttle
to produce over 200 bbl. per acre/yr. of algal-biodiesel fuels, and polyphenolics food concentrates to improve health.  NPI’s above said potential Australian partner, AlgaFuels Pty. Ltd., may also assist our Indian partner, AWARE, in this commercial effort.  (The overall objectives include improving incomes and well-being of impoverished rural villagers of Anantapur District, of India, while providing safe, alternative energy and protecting the environment.)

     DOS Task Force Goals --- Using NEPW – GE Systems:  The U.S. Dept. of State (DOS) “Renewable Energy and Distributed Generation Task Force” to promote renewable energy technologies that can deliver power with virtually zero emissions ---with initial emphasis on such projects in India.  Said invention can accomplish this goal.
     Renewable energy systems should facilitate wide-spread deployment including remote, rural, and peri-urban applications. Local production and distribution of related power systems are also goals.  All of these goals are accomplished by the inventor’s demonstration project as outlined herein.
     Environmental/ climate goals achieved include: 1)  Production of safe, clean fuel and energy;  2) Reduction of the primary greenhouse gas, CO2;  3)  Recovery & use of excess nutrients such as manure/ manure effluent (nutrients that would otherwise pollute rivers and lakes);  and  4) Harvesting and storage of rainwater to benefit the environment via increased plant production.

     Jobs, income, and economic development opportunities are created in impoverished rural areas engaged in the inventor’s proposed algal-biodiesel production, as well as production of related value-added products.  The local production and distribution of power also acts to facilitate development of cottage industries and microenterprises creating more jobs and income for previously impoverished rural populations in India.  Thus, NEPW – GE Systems will achieve the overall economic development and poverty reduction goals. Bonus health benefits are achieved via potable water, healthier air quality, healthful foods, and algal- polyphenolics food supplements provided by the inventor’s proposed project.  Research at the University of Oregon and University of California, Davis, has established that this food supplement will dramatically improve immune responses ---and reduce disease rates--- for consumer populations.  The inventor’s said demonstration project, sponsored by Needful Provision, Inc. (NPI)   --the charity he directs--  is expected to provide dramatic health benefits.
     NPI’s project has been designed to be easily replicable, thereby supporting the goal of wide-spread development throughout India, and elsewhere.  The project is also designed to promote collaboration between and among many different rural development groups to include private and public entities.

     General Capabilities of Inventor’s Partners:  NPI, founded on 12 June 1995, has engaged in rural development projects, worldwide ---and engages in the research, development, demonstration, and teaching of innovative technologies supporting rural development.  NPI’s founder and President, David A. Nuttle, has four decades of rural development experience in 42 developing nations, to include India.  AWARE, an Indian

page  5 – Disclosure of NEPW – GE Invention, by David A. Nuttle
NGO under the direction of D. James Prabhakar, an Indian, has an excellent record of quality rural development projects in the target area of Anantapur, India.  This Indian
NGO has the essential rapport, with local populations, needed to make NPI’s proposed project very successful within a 36-month time period. AlgaFuels Pty. Ltd., an Australian company directed by Elliot Fraval, is developing capabilities in algal-biodiesel production ---and is considering use of inventor’s subject algal-biodiesel technology for their next generation of biodiesel fuel production.  This company is possibly in the best position to help Indian villagers commercialize algal-biodiesel production, using said inventor’s subject technology. 

      Illustrations of Invention:   As attached.

      Inventor’s Genetic Engineering Policy:  Due to the fact that most developing nations oppose the use of genetically engineered species that could be difficult to control; e.g. freshwater microalgae.  For this reason, the inventor has made no effort to engage in any form of genetic engineering to enhance production using said NEPW – GE system herein documented.  Natural selection, optimization of production means, and natural 

      Persons Who Now Know of This Invention:  As of this date, 10 April 2007, the undersigned two witnesses are the only persons who know of this invention as fully disclosed herein.  

Date:  _____________________


Inventor:  ________________________                 _____________________________
                                (signature)                                                   (printed name)

I (we) the undersigned witness(s) do hereby declare that I (we) have read and studied this disclosure document, and fully understand the invention described herein, having first learned of this invention today, 10 April 2007.  In the capacity as witness(s), I (we) do hereby affirm that I (we) shall hold the NEPW – GE invention disclosed in confidence, and make no effort to circumvent or usurp the above stated inventor’s rights to his said invention, as herein described.


Witness:  _________________________                 ______________________________
                                (signature)                                                    (printed name)


Witness:  _________________________                 ______________________________  
                               (signature)                                                     (printed name)


N.B. Illustrations follow on pages 6 and 7 included herewith.