Special Efforts
Sudan Radio Schools

Needful Provision, Inc. (NPI) Sudan Project Tel. 1-918-868-5710
31 August 2004 Email: npiinc2000@aol.com

Memo To: USAID/ Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance
1300 Pennsylvania Ave., NW; Washington, DC 20523

Subject : FY-2005 Conflict Response Initiative in Sudan – Grant Application by NPI
(due 03 Sep 2004)
Title of Proposal: “Sudan Radio-Schools for Relief & Community Development”
Budget : US $3.1 Million for 12-months

I. Executive Summary. Needful Provision, Inc. (NPI), a U.S. based charity (NGO), has a staff with extensive experience in planning, implementing, and managing, refugee relief and recovery operations, as well as community development, in Third World Nations having significant conflict. NPI’s current projects, to include overseas homeland security efforts, may be seen its website (www.needfulprovision.org). The goal(s) of this proposed NPI project, for Sudan, is to provide safety, security, relief, and self-help recovery information (in local languages) for the thousands of impoverished refugees (IDPs) throughout Sudan. Examples of subjects taught, by the Radio-Schools, include health, water, food/ nutrition, agriculture, microenterprise & job creation, shelter construction, self-help relief techniques, gender equality, and means of self-defense. Simple, inexpensive crystal radios (radios that only receive the Radio-Schools station) will be distributed in refugee camps, and villages in critical need of recovery information. In each refugee camp and village, a number of local or area residents will be recruited and trained (in secure areas) to help organize the Radio-Schools for which they will be responsible. The Radio-Schools organization and learning technique will be the focus of instruction, along with demonstration the basic tools and techniques needed to achieve the above stated goals.

II. Program Rationale. Given the high levels of conflict, and the number natural disaster, in Sudan, there are thousands of refugees (IDPs) who cannot be easily assisted due to lack of security, adverse climatic conditions, and the requirement to operate in vast, remote areas with an array of adverse conditions. American volunteers, and other volunteers, cannot be long effective under the above types of conditions ---and without a sustained recovery effort, most relief efforts will be wasted. Radio-Schools will guide and assist local recruits to undertake a sustained, organized relief and community re-development effort. The proposed Radio-Schools are the only truly effective means to overcome the above stated “barriers” to essential relief and re-development.

A. Background: USAID/ OFDA is generally aware of the conflict and disaster situation (in Sudan) as well as the magnitude, duration, and location of various types of risks ---risks to the many vulnerable populations exposed to these hazards. Whereas the Radio-Schools may respond to any conflict or disaster situation, in any area for any length of time, the history, location, duration of conflict, and other facts do not significantly alter the planning of Radio-Schools. The only “key” factor is the languages Radio-Schools must use (for broadcasts) to be effective in any given area.
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B. Needs Assessment: Again, USAID/ OFDA is aware of the situation in Sudan. If the U.S. Government (USG) did not believe that a significant need existed, then the subject program would not have been created. All evidence suggests that the scope of conflict (in Sudan) is increasing, and the numbers of associated disasters as well as natural disasters are increasing. For all of these reasons, the subject effort is national in scope to reach all refugees, and persons, in need, throughout the Sudan. Our only question is how many radios will be eventually needed to reach all the people who need the information to be provided by the Radio-Schools. For the first 12-months of effort, subject project will distribute 15,000 radios in the refugee camps and crisis-stricken villages/ areas for all of the Sudan. (There will be only one radio station needed to operate the Radio-Schools.)

C. Coordination: The Radio-Schools program will stand-alone. However, NPI will fully coordinate its efforts with other NGOs, local, regional, national, and/or international entities --- to obtain their various suggestions on programming needs, and specific locations where radio programming should be directed. In addition, NPI will share information with all appropriate Humanitarian Information Centers.

D. Developmental Relief: All of the appropriate USAID/ OFDA principles of developmental relief have been, or will be, incorporated into the subject program. Radio-Schools are very flexible in their programming, and any additional developmental relief needs may be met as they are identified.

E. Security: The Radio-Schools station will be located in a very secure area, and will have an array of security features to protect facilities and station staff. Local village recruits, trained to organize Radio-Schools classes (in refugee camps and villages) will have a high level of survivability given their direct support from fellow villagers whom they seek to assist. Moreover, they are not easily identified assuming they keep their radios well hidden when not in use. Passive defense instruction will be part of Radio-Schools programming, and villagers will be advised (by radio) of the current location and tactics of hostile forces. Since the villagers being attacked are already targets, the fact that they are receiving defense instructions does not make them more of a target. We must assume that hostile forces will somehow obtain our radios so they can hear various alerts and defensive information given to villagers. (As necessary, and if approved, NPI can develop a “word-code” whereby villagers may be warned without hostile forces knowing exactly what is being said even if they have our radios.)

III. Proposal Framework. See below.
A. Program Goal: To meet the critical needs of targeted, vulnerable populations using best practices and techniques in a timely and effective manner ---and the thereby have the subject Radio-Schools program fully operational within 12-months. Fully operational means having 15,000 radios in the hands of 15,000 trained, local organizers of Radio-Schools classrooms in refugee camps and crisis-stricken villages/ areas.
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B. Critical Assumptions: The Government of Sudan (GOS) will license and fully authorize the operation of subject Radio-Schools ---and reasonably well-educated local translators will be available to broadcast in all of the languages needed. Given possible languages needed, subject radio station must be authorized (licensed) to operate with 3 to 5 channels (w/ crystal radios for each channel). We must also assume secure access to the refugee camps, and crisis-stricken villages/ areas where local recruits will be obtained for training (at secure areas) in the operation of Radio-Schools classrooms, where needed.

C. Objectives & Expected Results: Each objective is listed below with expected
results for each on.
1) Health/ Nutrition --- to teach and demonstrate methods of producing
organic food supplements high in anthocyanin and polyphenolics now documented to greatly increase immune response and dramatically lower diseases.
2) Water & Sanitation --- to teach and demonstrate the means of simple
solar water distillation (for potable water), along with techniques for rainwater harvesting and storage. In the area of sanitation, a simple composting toilet will be demonstrated while teaching basic needs for sanitation.
3) Food Security --- to teach and demonstrate techniques for solar powered
refrigeration, and solar powered cooking of foods. Proper methods for storing and concealing food supplies will also be part of the instruction.
4) Agriculture --- to teach and demonstrate sustainable, organic production
methods (for crops and livestock) as appropriate for local conditions.
5) Microenterprise --- to teach and demonstrate microenterprise development
to meet local needs and provide income.
6) Shelter --- to teach and demonstrate techniques for construction of safe
temporary shelter, as well as teaching earth-block construction methods to help meet long-term housing needs.
7) Alternative Energy --- to teach and demonstrate affordable methods of
alternative energy appropriate for Sudan.
8) Protection --- to teach and demonstrate the means of passive self-defense
as most appropriate for villagers in Sudan.
9) Logistics --- to teach and demonstrate use of alternative transportation
systems to move large quantities of cargo in areas lacking adequate roads or other types of viable transportation.
10) Capacity Building --- to teach and demonstrate the value of all the above
as a cost effective, rapid means to improve re-development capacity at the village level.
11) Information Management --- to plan and program the desired “flow” of
vital re-development/ development information for refugees and crisis-stricken villagers.
12) Coordination --- to work with stakeholders, and all interested parties, to
help assure program goals are accomplished for the benefit of stakeholders.
13) Relief Commodities --- to survey refugee needs on a regular basis, and to
make public the commodities needed by these refugees, while helping to find and deliver the various commodities critical for survival.
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D. Indicators and Performance Baseline Data: If the subject Radio-Schools effort is licensed and operational (in Sudan), as planned, that is the first indicator of success. When local Radio-Schools coordinators are recruited, trained, and acting to help their fellow villagers use Radio-Schools programming to meet critical needs, a second indicator of success will have been realized. The actual performance baseline is the observed and documented level of improvement, at the village level, for all 13 of the objectives areas listed above. Whenever possible, representatives of other NGOs (operating in Sudan) will be asked to observe for and document improvements being attributed (by users) to the Radio-Schools.

IV. Program Description. See below.

A. Implementation Plan: The first step will be to obtain official approval for
the construction and operation of a radio station, in Sudan, to broadcast in multiple languages throughout Sudan. Then, the second step is to construct the radio station in a centralized, secure location, in Sudan, agreed upon by all parties. As said construction proceeds, all organizations engaged in relief and/or re-construction (in Sudan) will be asked to list each of the refugee camps, villages, and areas where Radio-Schools programming should be directed ---and in what languages. Once locations are identified, a recruiting and training effort will be started to prepare the 15,000 Radio-Schools class organizers for targeted areas and populations. Each organizer will be provided with a crystal radio that will only receive broadcasts from the Radio-Schools station. Assuming broadcasts will be in three languages, there will be three different radio designs with each having the crystal for selected programming in the desired language.

Goods and services to be provided, to refugees and villagers, includes the
radios and demonstration kits for use in teaching self-help techniques for topics listed in III C above. The Radio-Schools class organizers will be trained in groups at secure forward facilities selected and operated with the cooperation from other organizations engaged in relief and re-development efforts (in Sudan). Insofar as possible, any existing available transport will be used to move radios and demonstration kits to forward areas. NPI will also develop its own transport system (for Sudan) with trucks and alternative transport by such means as a “spin-stabilized” cargo-balloon for transport in very remote areas --areas without roads, or where roads will not support trucks. (The cargo-balloon provides the lift to carry the load, and a towline allows the load to be pulled by a team of camels or horses ---given acceptable wind conditions.)

A high level of sustained security is required for subject radio station. Secure forward areas will be needed on a temporary basis for the training of Radio-Schools class organizers. Since the forward facilities are temporary, short-term, and mobile, classes will be held when and where security allows, until all target areas have a trained class organizer. In addition, we would expect to enlist the support of local security forces to provide protection when training is taking place.

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B. Monitoring & Evaluation: Each organization working with refugees and villagers (in Sudan), will be frequently asked to observe and report their observations on progress or benefits that may be attributed to the Radio-Schools. At the same time, they will be asked for suggestions on how radio programming should be improved. The local Radio-Schools class organizers will also hold meetings with local stakeholders (the radio listeners) to obtain their suggestions on how programming may be improved. Each of the class organizers will have NPI’s satellite, battery-powered text-messaging pager so they can send, and receive, text messages to, and from, the Radio-Schools Broadcast Center. (Batteries are recharged using a small photovoltaic panel.) Thus, the entire Radio-Schools effort is monitored and evaluated on a daily basis. With this type of local reporting, NPI’s staff will immediately be aware of urgent local needs as well as local security problems.

C. Transition or Exit Strategy: From the very first day, NPI’s staff will be working to recruit, train, and perfect local personnel to take over the entire Radio-Schools effort. Our objective is to have no Americans involved in this program by the end of the third-year.

D. Restricted Goods: Insofar as we are aware, NPI will not require the use of and goods on the restricted list other than trucks for cargo transport. If trucks are actually considered as restricted goods, a waiver will be required to purchase the trucks needed to provide project support (transport of cargo).

E. Budget & Budget Narrative for US $3.1 million: Please see the attachments.

F. Administrative Documentation: Also attached. NPI’s 501(c)(3) status, and financials may also be confirmed on GuideStar’s website: www.guidestar.org.

G. Accountability: NPI has a written management plan requiring that its staff
members adhere to international humanitarian laws, codes of ethics, and minimum standards of practice. Moreover, NPI is in compliance with USAID policies and indirect cost rates.

H. Cost Sharing/ In-Kind Contributions: NPI has already expended $1.7 million for the research and development of the self-help technologies and products to be used in support of the above described Radio-Schools program.

H. Sub-Awards Arrangements: NPI expects to make five sub-awards for: 1) A
radio broadcast center; 2) A total of 15,000 crystal radios; 3) Manufacture of self-help items (such as solar stills, refrigerators, ovens, earth-block machines, etc.); 4) A total of 15,000 satellite-type text-messaging pagers; and 5) Two spin-stabilized cargo balloons.
Relevant contracts are being negotiated with U.S. contractors. (For typical radio station costs see website www.ntia.doc.gov/ptfp/application/equipcost_Radio.html.)

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V. Other Considerations. See below.
A. Signed Certifications & Representations: Attached.

B. Cost Extension Proposals: None.

C. Past Performance: NPI, a charity founded on 12 June 1995, has a staff with
extensive experience in the research, development, demonstration, and training of poor peoples in self-help, self-sufficiency technologies such as those described in III C above. Primary training centers (for NPI) have been in the U.S. and Mexico. NPI’s staff is very familiar with Radio-Schools used to assist impoverished refugees and villagers in Third World nations. As an example, staff members worked with Radio Puno, in Peru, used very effectively to resolve refugee and re-development problems with the Quechua Indians, of Peru. NPI’s President, David A. Nuttle, has over four decades of experience in helping refugees and villagers in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East. In addition, Nuttle has helped to plan and implement homeland security projects for Third World villagers. Nuttle’s first homeland security project was the Civilian Irregular Defense Group (CIDG) effort in S. Viet-Nam ---a project that successfully protected refugees and over 60 villages from Viet-Cong (communist) attack. Charles A. Gourd, Ph.D., COO for NPI, has worked with the United Nations on programs to help resolve the problems of impoverished indigenous peoples, worldwide. Dr. Gourd has continued this work with NPI. The NPI staff is skilled in the development and implementation of training programs to teach the poor in innovative ways to help themselves. Wendee Hill and Marie Pruden, who direct NPI’s training center, in Mexico, are very skilled in this art. Karen M. Lees, NPI’s Director of Training, has over 25-years of experience in planning, preparing, and presenting an array of instructional materials for poor and special needs populations.

D. Program Income: NPI will use the Radio-Schools to facilitate and increase barter trade among program participants. This barter trade may be used to help local villagers acquire self-help items such as a solar refrigerator or oven. However, no income to the Radio-Schools program is anticipated during the startup period. At some
future date, advertising income --and fees for arranged barter trades-- may provide some program income.

E. Alternative Contract: NPI has not previously contracted with USAID, and USAID is generally inclined to award contracts to NGOs with a history of prior USAID contracts. Thus, NPI may not receive funding for the proposed Radio-Schools project even if NPI can best meet the needs of refugees and villagers in Sudan. In some cases, the U.S. Government (USG) awards contracts for political reasons even if proposals do not actually meet the essential needs identified. Given the above circumstances, NPI will be available to subcontract to perform the essential project work if the Radio-Schools effort is awarded to an established USAID contractor, or otherwise awarded to others.

Submitted by: David A. Nuttle, President Date: 31 August 2004